(1)The pounding in my ears drowned out the rest of the

words, only a word here and there filtered through. “…Martha is Mexican…resign…won’t do it…”




(2)Too late I realized the significance of my words.

Grandpa knew that I understood it was not a matter or money. It wasn’t that.



(3)It was a very sad and withdrawn girl who dragged into

the principal’s office the next day.



(4)His face looked as happy and innocent as a baby’s, but

I knew better.

翻译:他看上去像孩子般开心,像孩子般天真无邪 ,可我


(5)The fire bit at Bill’s arms, face and legs, but he

tightened his grip on Royce, “I’m not leaving you here,” he




(6)A lifetime spent around the tough people who make

their home in the Australian bush had permanently fixed into

Bill’s soul two principles: never give up no matter how had

the odds and never let a friend down.



(7)If I don’t make it, Royce will die out there, he told

himself over and over.



(8)But the real highlight for Bill came six months after the

fire, when Royce, just out of hospital, walked into the Eureka

Hotel and bought him a beer.


(9)The scientific method, as many of us learned in school,

is a gradual problem or question to be answered.




(10)Other researchers will try to repeat the experiment,

and the more often it works, the better the chances that the

result is sound.



(11)As President Clinton said that day, the possibility that

life existed on Mars billions of years ago was potentially one

of the great discoveries of our time.



(12)Some concluded that the “evidence of life” was

mostly contamination from Antarctic ice or that there was nothing organic at all in the rock.



(13)He moved to a low-rent district in Oakland, getting by

on a combination of scholarships, loans, a small grant and, as

always, work.



(14)Quinones holds her hand and looks into her eye. “I

walk a fine every day between good and bad outcomes, and bad outcomes can mean life or death,” he tells her frankly. 翻译:金妮奥内斯握住她的手,看着她的双眼。“手术结果的好坏,使我每天提心吊胆。坏的结果可能意味着生死存亡。”他坦率的对她说。

(15)The lab is an extension of his operating room: Cancerous tissue that he removes in surgery is studied with the goal of finding new therapies.


(16)Now I am here, looking at the same color—that bright red that just fills the brain with nutrition and wonder. I’m right there in the field, and I’m just doing it.




●Who’s responsible for(谁负责)

●isn’t good at(不擅长)

●I am afraid not (恐怕不能)

●Why don’t you(你为什么不)

●Why don’t we(我们为什么不)

●Are you free (你有空吗)

●Neither am I(我也不喜欢)

●do you prefer(你更喜欢)

●Shall I(要不要我来)

●she’s out(她外出了).

●that's a good idea(是个好主意).

●is not working (不运转了)

●call me before seven(在7点前给我打电话)

●from eight o'clock am to three pm(从早上八点到下午三点)。

●a quarter past seven(七点一刻)

●not as exciting as London (不如伦敦那样令人兴奋).

●What’s the weather like(天气怎么样)

●What's the weather like today (今天天气如何?)

●What would you like to drink(你想喝点什么),

●Would you like a cup of tea(你要喝杯茶吗?)

●I’d like a glass of wine(我要杯葡萄酒)

●smoke in the garden?(在花园里吸烟)?

●How are you feeling today(你今天感觉怎么样?)

●I’m not feeling well(我感觉不舒服)

●I’ve got a cold(我得了感冒)

●not comfortable enough (不够舒服)

●It’s not quiet enough(不够安静)

●works in computer(在计算机行业工作)

●works in insurance (在保险行业工作) .

●Thursday is fine(星期四可以。)

●What does he look like?(他长什么样儿?)

●is in front of the building (在办公楼前),

●opposite the supermarket (在超级市场对面)

●Who is calling, please(您是哪位)


●Can I take a message? (我能转达吗?)



Are there any commuters in the office? 办公室里有计算机吗?

Can I go to have lunch before 12 o’clock?十二点钟以前我可以去吃午饭吗?

Can I smoke in the garden?我可以在花园里吸烟吗?

Can I park in front of the office?我可以在办公楼前停车吗?

Can I use the toilet in your bedroom?我可以用你卧室里的卫生间吗

Can I use the cookers in the kitchen?我可以用厨房里的炊具吗?

Can I use the phone in the sitting room?我可以用客厅的电话吗?

Do you like reading English newspapers? 你喜欢读英文报纸吗?

Do you usually finish early on Friday?你一般周五早下班吗?

Do they like watching English films? 他们喜欢看英文片吗?

David is sleeping now.大卫此刻在睡觉

Does he have long hair?他留长头发吗?

He is not very tall and wears glasses. 他个子不高,戴副眼镜

He is an engineer. 他是工程师

He is different from others.他和其他人不同

He is currently working on TV advertisements他现在正在做广告项目

He is talking to a customer right now. 他正在和顾客谈话

He’s keen on learning languages.他热衷于学语言

He is good at doing presentations.他擅长做演示

He is visiting the New York office right now.他正在访问纽约办事处

He is good at web-design, much better than her. 他擅长网页制作,比她强多了

He isn’t an architect. He is an engineer. 他不是建筑师,他是工程师

He isn’t a programmer. He is an engineer. 他不是程序师,他是工程师.

He’s currently working on TV advertisements. 他目前在从事电视广告工作

He always eats in the canteen.他总是在食堂吃饭

He is having lunch in a restaurant in thecentre of town.他正在市中心 的一家餐馆吃午饭 He is as crazy about football as many other Englishmen.他和其他英国人一样,也为足球


He’s got shore, brown wavy hair with blue eyes and a short beard.他一头短短的棕 色卷


He has short hair with a beard. 他一头短发,留着胡须

He has got very short hair with blue eyes. 他一头短发,蓝色的眼睛

He has very good training skills and can speak good French. 他训练有数,而且能讲一口


How long does it take to get from the airport to the city centre?从机场到市中心需要多长


How long does it take to go to the airport by taxi?打车去机场要多少时间?

How long does it take to get to your house by bus?坐公共汽车到你家要多长时间 How about making a call to Mary?先给玛丽打个电话怎么样?

How about going to the cinema?/seeing a film?去看电影怎么样?

How about playing football tomorrow afternoon? 明天下午去踢足球怎样?

How about meeting at the bar?在酒吧见面怎么样

How much does the book cost? 这本书值多钱?

How many days did you stay in Beijing? 你在北京呆了多久?

I am a nurse.我是护士

I am a manger.我是经理

I’m interested in that large flat. 我对那套大公寓感兴趣

I am interested in web-design.我对网页设计感兴趣.

I am looking for a flat on the ground floor. 我想找一个一楼的公寓.

I am waiting for an important telephone call.我在等一个重要电话

I am looking for a flat on the third or fourth floor. 我想找一套在三层或者在四层的公寓 I like reading newspapers in cafés我喜欢在小咖啡店时读报

I’ll repair it this week.我这个星期要来修理

I’ll clean it.我要来打扫

I’ll work until 7 o’clock.我今晚要干到七点钟

I’ll call them.我来给他们打电话

I hate going shopping我不喜欢逛街买东西

I feel terrible. I’ve got a headache, backache and a sore throat.我感觉糟透了,我觉得头痛,


I go to a gym twice a week with my friends. We swim and work out there.我和我的朋友每周


I don’t like the flat. It is too near the road. 我不喜欢这套公寓.它离公路太近了 I think the area is too noisy and not safe enough. 我觉得这个地区太吵闹,也不够安全 I think that the parks are lovely.我觉得这些公园都很美

I prefer watching TV to reading the newspapers.和看报纸相比,我更喜欢看电视 I usually have a sandwich at lunchtime.午饭时我常常吃个三明治

It takes about half an hour to get to my house by tube. 到我家坐地铁大约要半小时

It takes about 20 minutes to get from the hotel to the station ty taxi.从旅馆到车站坐出租


Is his son clever?他的儿子聪明吗?

Is he tall?他个子高吗?

Is your teacher from the USA?你的老师是美国人吗?

Is Sally a police officer?萨丽是个警官吗?

Is your boyfriend talkative? 你的男朋友健谈吗

My English teacher is very funny.我的英文老师非常风趣.

My maths teacher is very interesting我的数学老师很风趣

My cousin is quite out going.我的表兄人很外向.

My parents don’t like travelling. 我的父母不喜欢旅游.

My son is not very confident of himself . 我儿子不太自信

My daughter is a bit shy. 我的女儿有点腼腆

My daughter is a little shy我的女儿有点腼腆.

Mary is having a holiday now.玛丽在度假

Shanhai is not as busy as London.上海不如伦敦热闹

Shanghai is as modem as London.上海的现代化程度和伦敦一样

She is very experienced at training.她在搞培训上经验丰富

She has got long, fair, wavy hair.她有一头金色的长卷发

She is average height and slim.她中等个,身材苗条

She is not a doctor. 她不是医生

She is beautiful.她很漂亮.

She is slim她很苗条

She is average height and slim. 她中等个,身材苗条

She is average height.她中等个

She is often late for class.她常常上课迟到

She is talking to a customer right now. 她正在和顾客交谈.

She is currently training a Chinese colleague.她眼下在培训一个中国同事

She never goes to work by bike.她从来不骑自行车上班

She has got long, fair, wavy hair . 她有一头金色的长卷发

She doesn’t like borrowing things from others. 她不喜欢向别人借东西

Shall I prepare some Chinese food?要我准备一些中国菜吗

Shall I turn on the lights?要我打开灯吗?

Shall I put the computer on the desk?要我把那计算机放在桌子上吗

Shall I wait for you outside the cinema?要我在电影院外面等你吗?

Shall I talk to him?要我跟他谈谈吗?

The bedroom is too small. 卧室太小了

The bank is on the corner. It’s opposite the newsagent.银行在拐角处,在报摊的对面 The bus stop is outside the greengrocer`s.蔬菜水果店外边就是车站

The table is not big enough for two people.餐桌不够两个人大

The living room is not comfortable enough.客厅不够舒服

The weather in Beijing is the same as the weather in New York.北京的气候与纽约的一样 The furniture is too old-fashioned. 家具太老式了

The flat is too far from the tube.这套公寓离地铁太远

The flat costs 500 pounds a month. 房租一月五百磅

The flat is large, light and modern. 这套公寓大而明亮,很现代化

The rent is 500 pounds a month.房租一月五百磅

The newsagent is on the corner.报刊亭在拐角处

The chemist is between the newsagent andthe bank.药店在报刊亭和银行中间

The month after next, I do two gym sessions. 下个月,我将有两次健身课程.

They are engineers他们是工程师

They are looking at the photos.他们正在看照片

There are three desks in the office. 办公室有三张办公桌

There are three chairs in our room.房间里有三把椅子

There are two armchairs, a sofa and a television in the living room.


There is a fax machine in the office.办公室里有一部传真机

There is a chemist next to the post office.在邮局旁边有一家药店

There is a supermarket opposite the café.在咖啡厅对面有一家超市

We have too much cheese in the fridge. 我们在冰箱里放了太多的奶酪

Why don’t you go to the Marketing Department?你为什么不去市场部

Why don’t you go to an estate agent?你为什么不去找房地产经纪人

Why don’t you go to see a doctor?你为什么不去看医生

Why don’t you have a try?你为什么不去试一试

Why don’t you make a plan?你为什么不搞个计划

Why don’t you go and talk to them face to face你为什么不去和他们面谈

What about seeing a film? 去看电影如何?

What about playing football tomorrow afternoon? 明天下午踢足球好吗?

What about seeing the flat?去看看这个公寓怎么样

What about going to the cinema去看电影怎么样?

What about going dancing this evening?今晚去跳舞怎么样?

You are doctors. 你们是医生

You can use the phone in the living room.你可以用客厅里的电话

You can smoke in the garden.你可以在花园里吸烟

You can eat and drink in the office, but you can’t smoke here. 你能在办公室里又吃又喝,


Polly is reading a newspaper.波莉在读报纸

Xiaoyan is reading a book小燕在读书

London is busy, noisy, crowded and exciting, But it’s too expensive.伦敦是一个繁华的,吵


Jane is better at web-design than Mary, but Mary is more experienced at training.简的网



Valve Timing

The time at which valves open and close ( valve timing ) and the duration of the valve opening in stated in degrees of crankshaf(转 载 于:wWw.HnnsCY.cOM 博文学习网:at英语翻译)t rotation . 气门打开和关闭的时间(配气正时)和气门打开持续的时间在曲轴旋转的角度。

For example , the intake valve normally begins to open just before the piston has reached the top dead center .比如,进气门通常只在活塞到达上止点的时候开始打开。

The valve remains open as the piston travels down to BDC and even past BDC . 进气门在活塞下行到下止点甚至超过下止点过程中继续打开。

This is intake valve duration .这是进气段。

An example of this could be stated as follows :这方面的一个例子可以说明如下: IO at 17BTDC , IC at 51ABDC ( or , intake opens 17before top dead center , intake closes 51after bottom dead center ) . Intake valve duration in this case is 248 of crankshaft rotation . IO at 17BTDC , IC at 51ABDC(也就是说,进气在上止点前17度打开,在到达下止点51度以后关闭)。在这个事例中进气过程曲轴转了248度。

This leaves 129 duration for the compression stroke since compression ends when the piston reaches TDC .在129度离开开始压缩冲程,压缩在活塞到达上止点的时候结束。

At this point the power stroke begins .此时,做功冲程开始。

The power stroke ends when the exhaust valve begins to open approximately at 51 before bottom dead center .大概在排气门打开前51度时做功冲程结束。

The duration of the power stroke in this case is also 129 .在这个事例中做功冲程所转的角度也是129度。

Since the exhaust valve is opening at 51 BBDC , this begins the exhaust stroke .从排气门打开到51BBDC以后,排气冲程开始。

The exhaust stroke continues as the piston passes BDC and moves upward to past TDC .排气冲程随着活塞经过下止点并上行至上止点。

With the exhaust valve closing at 17 TTDC , the duration of the exhaust stroke is 248 .随着排气门在17TTDC关闭,排气冲程所转的角度是248度。、

It is apparent from this description that the exhaust valve stays open for a short period of time during which the intake valve is also open .从以上描述中,显而易见,排气门在进气门也打开时仍然保持开启状态一小段时间。

In other words , the end of the exhaust stroke and the beginning of the intake stroke overlap for a short period of time .换言之,排气冲程的结束和进气冲程的开始有一小段时间的重叠。

This is called valve overlap . Valve timing and valve overlap vary on different engines.这个称为气门重叠。配气正时和气门重叠变通用于不同的发动机。

Opening the intake valve before TDC and closing it after BDC increase the fill of air-fuel mixture in the cylinder .在上止点前打开进气门并在下止点增大气缸内的油气混合物之后关闭。

Opening the intake valve early helps overcome the static inertia of the air-fuel mixture at the beginning of the intake stroke , while leaving the intake valve open after BDC takes advantage of the kentia of the moving air-fuel mixture . This increase volumetric efficiency .早一些开启进气门有助于克服在进气冲程开始的油气混合物的静止的惯性,当离开时利用先前的移动的油气混合物让进气门在下止点之后打开。

As the piston moves down on the power stroke past the 90 ATDC position , pressure in the cylinder has dropped , and the leverage to the crankshaft has decreased due to connecting rod angle and crankshaft position .当活塞下行在做功冲程超过90ATDC的位置时,缸压已经降低,并且曲轴的杠杆作用由于连杆角度和曲轴位置已经减少。

This ends the effective length of the power stroke , and the exhaust valve can now be opened to begin expelling the burned gases .这个终止做功冲程的有效长度,并且排气门此时被打开开始排出燃烧的气体。 The exhaust valve remains open until the piston has moved up past the TDC position .排气门直到活塞上行到上止点的位置依然处于打开状态。 This helps to remove as much of the burned gases as is possible and increase volumetric efficiency .这有助于尽可能清除足够多的燃烧的气体并增加充气系数。

2.4.4 Cam Design and Control Dynamics 凸轮设计和控制动力学

The function of the cam is to open and close the valves as far as possible , as fast as possible and as smoothly as possible . 凸轮的功能是尽可能长地、尽可能快地以及尽可能平顺地打开和关闭气门。The closing force for the valves is applied by the valve spring which also maintain contact between the cam and the valves . Dynamic

force impose limits on cam and valve lift .The closing迫使气门被维持凸轮和气门连接的气门弹簧顶开

The entire valve-train assembly can be view as a spring \mass system in which the conversion from stored to free energy causes force vibration .整个气门传动组件可看做是一个弹簧/质量系统,在这个系统中,能量储存与释放的转换引起振动。 Valve-train assemblies with overhead camshafts can be represented with sufficient accuracy by a 1-mass system ( consisting of the moving mass , the valve-train assembly stiffness and corresponding damping ) .带有顶置凸 轮轴的气门机构可非常精确地用单质量系统来表示,( 由运动质量、气门机构的刚度和相应的阻尼组成。)

For system with valve bottom-mounted camshaft and push rods , a 2-mass system is being increasingly used .

The maximum permissible contact stress , usually regarded as the parameter which limits cam-lobe radius and the rate of opening on the flank , currently lies between 600-700Mpa depending upon the material parings used .

2.4.6 Electronic Valve Control System

An electronic value control (EVC) system replaces the mechanical camshaft, controlling each value with actuators for independent value timing. The EVC system controls the opening and closing time and lift amount of each intake and exhaust valve with independent actuators on each value. Changing from a mechanical camshaft driven value into independently controlled actuator valves provides a huge amount of flexibility in engine control strategy. 电控气门系统代替机械式的凸轮轴,用执行器控制每个气 门独立的进、排气正时。EVC通过每个气门上的独立执行器 控制进气门和排气门的开启、关闭时间以及升程量。由机 械式驱动气门到独立控制执行器的气门改变,极大的增加 了发动机控制策略的灵活性。 Vehicles utilizing EVC can realize several benefits including:汽车利用电控系统可以实现一些便利包括:

1)increases engine power and fuel economy,提升发动机动力和燃油经济性

2)allows centralized and distributed EVC systems to perform at their full potential,允许集中和分散的电控系统在充足的可能性下工作

3)adapts to engines of varied cylinder counts.适应各种不同气缸的发动机

With all of the improved efficiencies and consumer benefits, auto manufacturers are eager to get their first EVC systems on the road. The EVC system is targeted to operate in temperatures up to 125, while the actuator is targeted to run up to 6000 r/min. The actuator can be controlled in a centralized system with a high-speed multiplex bus (up to 10Mbps) or in a distributed system with a nominal speed bus.